So with constriction the thorax pressure and the pulmonary venous pressure will drop, but there are phasic filling differences within the heart, because the gradient to fill the left side of the heart is decreased. The heart is no longer able to push outward against the pericardium, so the pressure is forced inward into the cardiac chambers. So during expiration, the pressure in the right atrium causes flow reversal in the hepatic veins. Whereas, with chronic late stages of restriction, there is an inspiratory reversal during diastole, because there is no shifting of septum and the right heart cannot accommodate increased flow which results from chronic diastolic dysfunction and this causes hepatic vein reversal.
So while diagnosing Constrictive Pericarditis on echocardiography can certainly be a challenge, it can be done with confidence. Paying close attention to the details and recognizing when your patient with heart failure symptoms might actually be more than meets the eye, can help to make the correct diagnosis and ensure adequate treatment for your patient.
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